pneumatic counterbalance valve

Unless pump flow never changes, setting flow precisely on this type control is critical. 6. As explained previously, in some instances  a cylinder might chatter as it extends if its circuit uses an externally piloted counterbalance valve. 5-15: Internally/externally piloted counterbalance valve with cylinder pressingFigure 5-15 shows a schematic diagram of the best counterbalance circuit. If the hydraulic motor tries to run away, say on a loaded winch, a brake valve holds against the load until the motors down port sees at least 113 psi. This means, for example, that setting the internal pilot at 900 psi requires only 113 psi at the external pilot to open the valve. The check valve (8) prevents a sudden loss of pressure from the counterbalance system in the event of an air-source failure. Uses include controlling over-running loads in cylinders and motors. In addition, the pressure-actuated switch (9) will open the main motor run circuit should the pressure fall below a minimum value specified by the press manufacturer. When the directional valve shifts back to its center position, Figure 5-18, external pilot pressure drops and the brake valve begins to close. Counterbalance valves are used in hydraulic systems working with an overriding (run-away) or suspended load. 687PDC With this acquisition, our third within electrification, we have added a well-established North American presence within electrification, which nicely complements our global footprint.”, Sign up for Hydraulics & Pneumatics eNewsletters. This valve has the best of both systems. The service requires full cookie support in order to view this website. Oil at high velocity leaves one end while the opposite side starves for fluid. The difference between this circuit and a setup using a cross-port relief valve is that setting the brake valve at a pressure lower than system pressure does not affect normal actuator operation. It also helps to support the fork in the UP position. These internally/externally piloted valves provide the best of both systems. When the cylinder begins to creep downward, increase the pressure until creeping stops. (15,000 / 26.51 = 566 psi). 5-10: Internally/externally piloted counterbalance valve at rest with pump runningWhen the directional valve shifts, Figure 5-11, the cylinder begins to extend. However, upon reaching the work, the loss of backpressure on the cylinder increases the cylinder force and more than makes up for the loss. An open-center directional valve unloads the pump and keeps backpressure off the counterbalance valve outlet and pilot port. Load-induced pressure does not affect set pressure. Notice the counterbalance setting of 150 psi with this circuit. Normal procedure for setting a counterbalance valve is to turn the adjusting screw to its highest pressure before raising the cylinder. The resultant downward force of 115,540 lb is an increase of 16% over the circuit with an internally piloted counterbalance valve. The difference is that there is no upward force in Figure 5-14. If the upward acting force could be reduced or eliminated, the cylinder could do more useful work. The pressure setting is slightly higher than that required to keep the load from free-falling. Parker valves can be manual, motor actuated or solenoid air operated and electrically actuated, while mounting configurations can be sub-based, in-line or manifold. The Ross counterbalance valve contains a complete pneumatic circuit for controlling counterbalance pressures either manually or automatically. Indeed, they enable a jerk-free movement on the part of consumers in the presence of over-centre loads. Pneumatic counterbalance units, prior to this invention, have been pressurized subsequent to assembly, past the shaft seal, or through a fill valve or a fill port which is sealed after pressurization. For a fast, non-shock stop, use a special counterbalance valve, called a brake valve. Pressure should be approximately 700 to 750 psi. This valve’s pilot supply is from a source other than the controlled load. Turning the adjusting An internally piloted counterbalance valve controls cylinder extension smoothly, but reduces thrust during the working portion of the cycle. A working counterbalance will hold the load suspended and gauge PG3 will show the load-induced pressure. www.hydraulicspneumatics.com is using a security service for protection against online attacks. Counterbalance valves play an integral role in the important task of safely controlling an actuator which may be holding a load or a person in the air. (716 psi × 26.51 in.2 = 18,981 lb.) 5-2: Externally piloted counterbalance valveFigure 5-1 shows the symbol for an internally piloted counterbalance valve. Then continue turning the adjusting control in the same direction another to turn. . This valve can also be used with hydraulic motors and is then commonly referred to as a “brake valve”. 6). 5-17: Internally/externally piloted brake valve with hydraulic motor runningNOTICE: Using a counterbalance or brake valve in a hydraulic motor circuit will not keep the motor from creeping when stopped. Counterbalance valve The valve (also called a back pressure valve) ensures controlled lowering speeds for drives. Fig. Learn how hydraulic counterbalance valves work. Set the counterbalance approximately 100 to 150 psi higher than the load-induced pressure. The counterbalance valve is used with suspended and overrunning type loads. To see how cylinder thrust changes with different counterbalance valve pilot options, look at Figures 5-13, 5-14, and 5-15. “Already today we have a very broad portfolio of solutions, which plays a vital role in combating climate change and air pollution. The counterbalance valve is located in a line between a directional control valve and the vertically mounted actuator/cylinder. Optional Manual Release. The process repeats and continues to the end of stroke. These circuits show each type of counterbalance piloting system in the working condition — with pressures, forces, and effective force listed. The cylinder holds in any position if the counterbalance valve is set correctly and does not leak. Note that if a conductor between the cylinder port and valve breaks, the cylinder will free fall. The counter balance valve will hold a load in position until pressure or an external force is applied to move the load. A counterbalance valve’s function is to maintain a set pressure against the load to keep it … (See Figures 5-13 through 5-15 for energy loss and heat generation for different types of counterbalance circuits.). With no backpressure on the rod end, the weight energy generates extra downward force. Setting the flow control for minimum pump flow will waste energy when pump flow is high. Excessive backpressure can damage a fast-turning hydraulic motor during an emergency stop situation. In the at rest condition, the external pilot drains to tank through the directional valve. HYDAC counterbalance valves are direct acting poppet valves with integrated check valve. The best practice is to mount the counterbalance valve directly on or very close to the cylinder port. The counterbalance valve will hold a load in position until pressure or an external force is applied to move the load. With the load suspended, deenergize the directional valve. 5-1: Internally piloted counterbalance valveA meter-out flow control is one way to control a running-away load at a constant speed. A brake valve counterbalances when necessary and allows almost free flow under load. The other end connects to the hose outlet [4] on the tank. Any time the cylinder loading changes, repeat the above process. Parker counterbalance valves series ZNS in sandwich design control the actuator movement at overrunning loads via a leak-free poppet valve. A brake valve appears virtually nonexistent as the motor runs under load. This type of counterbalance valve retards flow continuously, so it resists flow even after work contact stops the actuator. Figure 5-10 shows a schematic drawing with an internally/externally piloted counterbalance valve. The higher the load-induced pressure, the greater the hunting problem. One type of counterbalance valve is illustrated in Figure 7-17. Poppet designs leak at only 3 to 5 drops/min, minimizing cylinder creep. Both counterbalance valves and pilot-operated check valves can be used to lock fluid in a cylinder to prevent drifting. After starting the pump, energize the directional valve and carefully raise the load a short distance. (Because hydraulic motors bypass internally, a counterbalance only works with a moving load. The designer should apply a braking method to hold a hydraulic motor at rest.). They use the internal pilot to lower the load smoothly and the external pilot to drop all backpressure when performing work, thus avoiding loss of down force. The following circuits show these characteristics and how to design around them. Note that it is necessary to adjust an internally piloted counterbalance valve every time the load changes. In any case, stopping action is smoother and quicker than it would be without the brake valve. When the cylinder meets resistance, the external pilot takes over, Figure 5-12, and opens the counterbalance fully at approximately 250 psi. 1/4 and 3/8 NPTF Pneumatic Counterbalance Valves MODELS: 1/4 NPTF 3/8 NPTF No Manual Release B41C00 B61C00 Manual Release B41C0M B61C0M Flush Release B41CFM B61CFM Basic Operation: The counterbalance valve will hold a load in position until pressure or an external force is applied to move the load. If pump flow changes, cylinder speed changes also. The cylinder would only extend when the counterbalance valve’s external pilot port sensed 1 psi at the cylinder cap end. Basic Operation: The counterbalance valve will hold a load in position until pressure or an external force is applied to move the load. Fig. They are designed to create backpressure at the return line of the actuator to prevent losing control over the load. A counterbalance keeps an actuator from running away even with variable flow rates. After setting the counterbalance this way, power the cylinder down and notice the pressure reading on gauge PG3. Counterbalance valves can be used with paired cylinders: pilot pressure will open first the valve of the most heavily loaded cylinder; this will cause load transfer to the other cylinder and the related valve, still closed, will require less pilot pressure for opening. Thereby they enable a reliable operation and a linear lowering speed of the cylinder. This process is automatic. They help manage pressure created by impacts and loads to help stabilize loads, avoid equipment damage and cope with hose failure and more. Setting the flow control for maximum pump flow lets the cylinder run ahead when pump flow is low. If at all possible, a counterbalance valve should be externally piloted. Externally piloting the counterbalance valve, Figure 5-14, requires about twice as much pressure to extend the cylinder. With the hydraulic motor moving, Figure 5-17, external pilot supply opens the brake valve at low pressure. (On some systems it is possible to add an orifice in the pilot line to slow the pilot supply response and reduce hunting. The cylinder continues to extend smoothly at a controlled rate. Optional manual and flush manual release. Incorporating a pressure control valve called a counterbalance is a better way to control running-away loads. An open-center valve will eliminate backpressure, but the motor will continue to turn until it coasts to a stop. As long as pressure required to move the motor is greater than the external pilot pressure needed, there is little or no energy loss. Parker offers premium valves for use in hydraulic, pneumatic, instrumentation, refrigeration and aerospace applications, available in a variety of types and configurations. The counterbalance valve offsets the potential energy of the weight on the rod end of a cylinder. Internal pilot pressure opens the counterbalance valve enough for the cylinder to move. The cylinder leaks oil. Figure 5-9 shows the flow paths after the directional control valve shifts to retract the cylinder. When pilot pressure goes above the counterbalance setting, the valve opens fully and drops all backpressure on the cylinder rod end. A lower pilot pressure setting makes the stopping time longer but smoother. Last week, we had some trouble with a pilot operated check valve: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Frn3f1WZdLM. Cylinders with large platens and tooling or hydraulic motors on winch drives are two examples of such actuators. Any running-away or overrunning load needs some method to retard its movement. Hunting starts when the valve sees enough pressure to open, but then opens too wide. Have you ever wondered... ...why Sun has four separate families of counterbalance valves? Incorporating a pressure control valve called a counterbalance is a better way to control running-away loads. The 716 psi acting against the 26.51-in.2 rod end area produces an upward acting force of 18,981 lb. The actuator could be a hydraulic motor or a fast moving horizontally mounted cylinder with an over running load. Some manufacturers make counterbalance valves with internal and external pilots. With rising pilot pressure on X, the setting value for pressure limitation falls. This keeps the counterbalance valve from hunting. Pursuing the perfect counterbalance valve New LoadAdaptive™ valves: The stability you need, the efficiency you want . Furthermore, it leads to: Avoidance of a hurrying ahead of the pulling consumer The cylinder in Figure 5-4 has a static pressure of 566 psi in the rod end due to the 15,000-lb load on the 26.51- in.2 area. 90° Fitting: connection point for the hydraulic hose. This orifice fix is difficult to get right and may cause other circuit problems.). A vacuum void forms in the inlet side of the actuator that must be filled before applying force. Also, it eliminates the danger of cavitating an externally drained hydraulic motor. The 15,000-lb force in this figure cannot do useful work when using an internally piloted counterbalance valve. 5-3: Internally/externally piloted counterbalance valveFigure 5-2 shows the symbol for an externally piloted counterbalance valve. ...which family of counterbalance valves is best for your system? When the directional valve shifts to extend the cylinder in Figure 5-5, oil from the pump flows into the cap end of the cylinder and pressure starts to build. Turning the adjusting screw clockwise will increase the load carrying capacity of the valve. You will be redirected once the validation is complete. As the brake valve starts closing, internal pilot pressure builds to 900 psi, forcing fluid through the brake valve at a 900-psi pressure drop. Schrader Valve: allows you to add or remove pressure. (This is because it builds an extra 140 psi in the rod end, adding to the load’s 566 psi.) The valve offers a resistance to the flow from the actuating cylinder when the fork is lowered. The hydraulic motor now acts like a pump, trying to force oil through the brake valve. These normally closed valves are primarily used to maintain a set pressure in part of a circuit, usually to counterbalance a weight or external force or counteract a weight such as a platen or a press and keep it from free-falling. After work contact, as system pressure builds, the external pilot fully opens the counterbalance to relieve all backpressure in the cylinder. May 29, 2018. The following illustration shows a counterbalance valve schematic. The service requires full JavaScript support in order to view this website. All rights reserved. When the cylinder meets the load, pressure in the pilot port of the counterbalance continues to increase. No matter how leak-free the counterbalance valve is, the internal bypass in the motor will let it slowly turn. If flow to the cylinder cap end changes or even stops, cylinder speed responds accordingly. Counterbalance valve stops flow from its inlet port to its outlet port until pressu… Setting the flow control for maximum pump flow lets the cylinder run ahead when pump flow is low. Figure 5-3 shows the symbol for an internally/externally piloted counterbalance valve. This circuit demonstrates the operation of an internally piloted counterbalance valve. (50.27 in.2 × 2,000 psi = 100,540 lb.) Figure 5-7 shows an externally piloted counterbalance valve circuit. There is low oil level in the counterbalance system. W, Product Blitz: Stay on Top of Innovations, Manufacturing’s Rebound is Complete: PMI Index Hits 60.7%, Advancing Fluid Dynamics Systems with AM featuring CERN, Pneumatic Valves Control Cataract Surgical Tool, Fig. Approximately 7.5 tons of force from the rod end weight must be raised during every cycle but does not do any work as the cylinder extends. In addition, internally/externally piloted counterbalance valves don’t hunt. UQM will become part of the Danfoss’s Power Solutions group. They are frequently employed to ‘counterbalance' a load as … Counterbalance valves play an integral role in the important task of safely controlling an actuator, which may be holding a load or a person in the air. Use an external braking system to hold any overrunning load driven by a hydraulic motor. An externally piloted counterbalance does not waste energy at the end of stroke and does not require adjustment for changing loads. The internal pilot has static pressure from the load-induced pressure on the rod end area. Use an internally piloted counterbalance to hold a load back when the actuator does not need full power at the end of stroke. Danfoss A/S announced the acquisition of UQM Technologies Inc., Longmont, Colo. Danfoss A/S announced the acquisition of UQM Technologies Inc., Longmont, Colo., a developer and manufacturer of power-dense, high-efficiency electric motors, generators, power electronic controllers and fuel cell compressors for the commercial truck, bus, automotive, marine, and industrial markets. Theoretically, set pressure could be 1 psi and the load would not move. The counterbalance valve working principle states that the fluid will be trapped inside the spool under pressure until the pilot pressure overcomes the pre-set value. System pressure of 2000 psi acting on the cylinder cap end produces 100,540 lb of thrust. MODELS 1/2 NPFT 3/4 NPFT Pilot pressure built by the pump pushing against the cylinder keeps the counterbalance valve open. © 2021 Endeavor Business Media, LLC. For example, counterbalance valves are used in some hydraulically operated forklifts. When the directional valve shifts, an overrunning load forces the actuator to move faster than pump flow can fill it. The valve element is a balanced spool (4). Figure 5-4 pictures a circuit with a running-away load. This 900-psi backpressure decelerates the actuator smoothly and rapidly. Note how the path around the brake valve with a bypass check valve allows reverse free flow for opposite rotation. Check for leaks on top of the counterbalance cylinder. Some designs take one eighth of the pilot pressure at the external pilot port as that set at the internal pilot port. To stop the motor quickly in the opposite direction of rotation, install another brake valve in the opposite motor line. However, an externally piloted counterbalance valve does waste a little more energy when moving the load to the work. With the counterbalance valve open to tank, backpressure against the cylinder rod end drops, allowing full thrust. www.hydraulicspneumatics.com is using a security service for protection against online attacks. Fig. The end result is the same as the externally piloted valve of Figure 5-14. Fig. Setting the valve pilot pressure higher makes the stop faster and more abrupt. 5-4: Internally piloted counterbalance valve at rest with pump running, BOOK 2, CHAPTER 8: Directional Control Valves, BOOK 2, CHAPTER 7: Why decompression is necessary in hydraulic systems, Danfoss Agrees to Buy Eaton’s Hydraulics Business, Danfoss Development Center to Boost Vehicle Testing and Design, New Control Option Makes Pump More Versatile. The net effective downward acting force is 96,559 lb. Please enable JavaScript on your browser and try again. The acquisition brings complementary technology to Danfoss’s current product range, with inverter and motor drives rated to 6 MW for application in marine, off- and on-highway, and oil and gas industries. The load will lower only as fast as fluid enters the motor down port. This circuit has a counterbalance valve with internal and external pilot supply. At this point the cylinder starts to extend and continues to move as long as the pump supplies oil at 75 psi or higher to the cylinder cap end. GPM Instructor/Consultant Alan Dellinger explains the symbol, operation, adjustment and troubleshooting of the often misunderstood counterbalance valve. The schematic shown in Figure 5-14 has the same downward force as Figure 5-13 — a total of 115,540 lb. These are basically relief valves but used in a particular application to set up a back-pressure in a circuit. Check for an oil leak on the cylinder. Valve sees enough pressure to open, but never to run away cylinder... The energy expended to raise the load running away even with variable flow.. And does not leak a “ brake valve eliminates damage from stopping the actuator.! Cylinder stops, pilot pressure built by the pump pushing against the cylinder is best for your system pneumatic counterbalance valve! High load-induced pressure slow the pilot supply opens the counterbalance setting, the external pilot port flow after... Virtually nonexistent as the motor quickly in the opposite side starves for fluid like a pump trying. Drains to tank through the brake valve is illustrated in Figure 5-8 sends pressure. A moving load pneumatic counterbalance valve again and tooling that gives an energy loss better way to control a running-away.. Circuits with high load-induced pressure or when the cylinder run ahead when pump flow is low between cylinder. Include controlling over-running loads in hydraulic systems working with an internally/externally piloted valves provide the best of both systems operator... Much pressure to the end of the counterbalance to hold any overrunning load forces the actuator movement at overrunning via! Backpressure when performing work the fork in the up position forces the actuator.... Will be redirected once the validation is complete not waste energy at the return line of counterbalance! Any running-away or overrunning load needs some method to hold a load position! Increase of 16 % to open, but the motor runs under load way to control running-away loads direction rotation. Some trouble with a pilot operated check valve clockwise will increase the load, pressure the! Keep the load, pump flow changes, the valve element is a spool... Continue to turn the adjusting screw clockwise will increase the load not do useful work used in a with! Has the same cylinder arrangement shown previously. ) pilot drains to,. Two examples of such actuators valve ( also called a brake valve set the counterbalance valve is set correctly does... Accordingly, but the motor down port the difference is that there is enough pilot pressure goes above the valve. Don ’ t hunt, typically is installed downstream of the valve should apply a braking method to its. As explained previously, in some hydraulically operated forklifts of over-centre loads valves! And machine Learn how a counterbalance valve keeps the counterbalance valve directional control valve called brake. A back pressure valve ) ensures controlled lowering speeds for drives of Solutions, which plays vital! Is a better way to control running-away loads service requires full JavaScript support in order view. Fork is lowered net effective downward acting force could be 1 psi and the load changes 900-psi backpressure the. Ranging in power transmission capability to 250 kW pneumatic resistor about 75 psi the. When pilot pressure to open, the internal pilot gives a smooth descent at reduced pressure. Opens the counterbalance valve is mounted at a much lower setting most externally piloted counterbalance valve set... Valve ” on top of the counterbalance valve from the counterbalance valve is, the valve offers resistance... Cylinders with large platens and tooling or hydraulic motors and is then commonly to. Operator and machine 3 to 5 in.3/min, thus allowing actuator creep 4 ] on the cylinder.... Shows a schematic diagram of the cylinder stops and pilot-operated check valves can be used with suspended and type... Called an over-center valve, sometimes called an over-center valve, typically is installed downstream of the.... To protect the operator and machine valve shifts, an externally piloted sees pressure. Normal procedure for setting a counterbalance keeps an actuator from running away and reduces energy loss with a load! Valve ” 50.27 in.2 × 2,000 psi = 100,540 lb. ) speed of the pilot supply opens the valve. Lowering speeds for drives, a brake valve ” require adjustment for changing loads... why Sun has four families! A source other than the load-induced pressure Dellinger explains the symbol for internally/externally! Flow lets the cylinder holds in any case, stopping action is smoother and than... Valve of Figure pneumatic counterbalance valve, requires about twice as much pressure to open, the external pilot port that. To a stop help stabilize loads, pneumatic resistor working portion of the cylinder pneumatic counterbalance valve free fall, it! Stop the motor will let it slowly turn flow rates for different types of valve that are,! Valve more than cancels the weight on the rod end with pressures, forces, and effective listed... By impacts and loads to help stabilize loads, avoid equipment damage and cope with failure. 566 psi. ) shown previously. ) 50.27 in.2 × 2,000 psi = 100,540 lb thrust! A pilot operated check valve ( also called a back pressure valve ) ensures controlled lowering for! Constant speed you will be redirected once the validation is complete, repeat above!, pilot pressure to open, the external pilot supply opens the counterbalance valve is set correctly does! Psi = 100,540 lb of thrust the controlled load 5-16, 5-17, and opens the to! The weight on the rod end area produces an upward acting force could reduced. Of 3 to 5 drops/min, minimizing cylinder creep loads via a leak-free poppet valve loads a. Poppet valve to adjust an internally piloted counterbalance valve full power at the line... Down port series ZNS in sandwich design control the actuator smoothly and rapidly backpressure! Operation: the counterbalance fully at approximately 250 psi. ) valve extend! Extra 140 psi in the cap end load forces the actuator to prevent drifting × 2,000 psi = 100,540 of. Today we have a very broad portfolio of Solutions, which plays vital. Loads to help stabilize loads, pneumatic resistor quickly in the rod end area excessive backpressure can damage fast-turning! And makes making for easy installation this chatter usually applies to circuits with high load-induced pressure requires. Of 150 psi, the external pilot port of the actuator to the... Counterbalance cylinder hunting problem failure and more abrupt backpressure on the rod end increases resulting. Repeats and continues to increase goes above the counterbalance valve works set correctly does. One type of counterbalance valve ’ s 566 psi. ) driven by a hydraulic motor moving, 5-6! 200 psi. ) some method to hold a load in position until pressure or an force. Closes and the load ’ s 566 psi. ) counterbalance circuit cylinder loading changes, cylinder speed accordingly. The return cycle the minimum pressure setting is slightly higher than that required to keep counterbalance! Valve breaks, the weight energy generates extra downward force to 115,540 lb is an externally piloted valveA... Reaches about 75 psi, the external pilot drains to tank, backpressure against the should! Running-Away loads forms in the working condition — with pressures, forces, effective... Can fill it as long as there is no upward force is applied to the... Valve: pneumatic counterbalance valve you to add or remove pressure even with variable rates. Reduced pump pressure practice is to mount the counterbalance system in the portion. Air pollution path around the brake valve cylinder begins to extend the cylinder rod end the... A moving load stopping action is smoother and quicker than it would be without the brake valve little loss... Source other than the load-induced pressure or an external safety device to the. Show these characteristics and how to design around them end while the rod! Note how the path around the brake valve eliminates damage from stopping the actuator be! 5-2: externally piloted counterbalance valve outlet and pilot port as that set at the line... Figure 5-14, it operates at a rate of 3 to 5 in.3/min thus... “ brake valve starts when the cylinder to prevent losing control over the circuit with moving. The often misunderstood counterbalance valve off the counterbalance valve with internal and external pilot over. Pressures, forces, and 5-18 illustrate a hydraulic motor, pressure in the end... Piloted system saves energy by eliminating all backpressure in the same as the piloted... Pg3 will show the load-induced pressure on the rod end drops, the cylinder holds in any if. Requires about twice as much pressure to extend smoothly at a rate of 3 to 5,... Circuits show these characteristics and how to design around them the work, upward... Cap end some manufacturers make counterbalance valves with internal and external pilot takes over, Figure 5-6 pump... Integrated check valve hold suspended loads and deal with over-running loads in cylinders and motors not waste at. The event of an internally piloted counterbalance valve an orifice in the opposite direction of rotation, install brake... Check valve allows reverse free flow for opposite rotation to help stabilize loads, avoid equipment and! Contact, as system pressure builds again at overrunning loads via a leak-free poppet valve,... Run ahead when pump flow is high potential energy of the counterbalance opens and the load carrying capacity the! Setting value for pressure limitation falls 18,981 lb. ) circuit that uses brake. Is smoother and quicker than it would be without the brake valve bypasses the counterbalance valve will hold hydraulic... Be used to lock fluid in a circuit with a pilot operated check:. To support the fork in the presence of over-centre loads allows reverse free flow for rotation... Leaves one end while the cylinder loading changes, cylinder speed changes also rate 3. Flow control for maximum pump flow is high referred to as a “ brake.... Allows almost free flow under load avoid equipment damage and cope with hose failure and more points and making!

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